Judo Terminology



Dr Jigoro Kano = Founder of Judo

1882 = Year Judo founded

Jiujitsu = Martial Art Judo derived from.

Kodokan = School for study of system of Judo established in 1882 by Dr. Jigoro Kano, located in Tokyo, Japan.

Dojo = Judo practice/exercise hall

Sensei = Teacher or instructor

Joshu = Assistant instructor

Dan = Judo rank, Black Belt

Yudansha = Black Belt Holder

Kyu = Judo rank, before Black Belt

Mudansha = Holder of rank before Black Belt

Judoka = Judo student

Judogi, Gi = Judo uniform

Obi = Judo belt

Kiotsuke = Attention

Rei = Bow, salutation

Ritsurei = Standing bow

Zarei = Kneeling bow

Seiza = Formal sitting posture

Anza = Informal sitting posture

Kiai = Shout or a cry with practical and psychological values.

Shisie = Posture

Shizentai = Natural standing posture

Shizen Hontai = Basic natural standing posture

Migi Shizentai = Right natural standing posture

Hidari Shizentai = Left natural standing posture

Jigotai = Defensive standing posture

Jigo Hontai = Basic defensive posture

Migi Jigotai = Right defensive Posture

Hidari Jigotai = Left defensive posture

Three parts to throwing:

Kusushi = To break the posture of the opponent; make off balance

Tsukuri = Positioning yourself in relation to your opponent

Kake = Initiation of the throw

Suriashi = Sliding movement of the feet

Tori = Offence

Uke = Defence

Mokuso = Meditation

Uchikomi = To practice the standing techniques without throwing – repetitions

Nagekomi = To practice the standing techniques without resistance.  – moving, trading throw with partner

Tachi-waza = Standing techniques of throwing

Katame-waza = The techniques of grappling (mat work)

Tai-sabaki = Body control; controlled turning action; primarily fluid and fast turning movements.

Ayumi ashi – natural walking style; sliding feet across mat with majority of weight over leading foot.

Tsugi ashi = When moving any directions, one foot always lead and the other follow; after each step one assumes one of the basic postures.

Ukemi = Breakfall techniques; meaning “Falling way”

Koho Ukemi = Backward breakfall

Sokuho Ukemi = Slide fall

Zempo Ukemi = Front fall

Zempo Kaiten Ukemi = Forward rolling ukemi

Te = Hand

Koshi = Hip

Ashi = Foot

Mae – In front

Yoko = Side

Ushiro = Back

Sumi = Corner

Kumikata = Forms of Grasping the Opponent

Happo No Kusushi = 8 directions of Kusushi and various grips (right or left)

  • Ma Mae = front/forward
  • Hidari Mae Sumi = Uke’s left front corner
  • Hidari Yoko = Uk’s left side
  • Hidari Ushiro Sumi = Uke’s left rear corner
  • Ma Ushiro = directly backward
  • Migi Ushiro Sumi = Uke’s right rear corner
  • Migi Yoko = Uke’s right side
  • Migi Mae Sumi = Uke’s right front corner

Kata = formalized demonstration

Randori = free practice

Shiai = Contest, match or tournament

Hajime = Command to begin, go

Matte = stop; wait

Sonomama = Freeze (the position)

Yoshi = Restart (after sonomama)

Soremade = Time’s up; match over

Toketa = Stop timing hold-down; hold-down broken

Jyogai = Out of bounds, action doesn’t count

Ippon = Full point

Waza-ari = half point

Waza-ari Awasete Ippon = Two half point added  – equal full point

Shido = Penalty

Hansuko-make = Penalty equal to Ippon

Jikan = Time (used by referee)

Shinban = Referee /judge

Osaekomi = pin technique started/initiated

Osaekomi toketa = (toketa) the action is terminated prior to completion (hold down broken)

Kachi = winner

Hantei = referee’s call for decision

Hiki-wake = draw, no winner

Gachi = winner